Free Radicals and Antioxidants <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> EManuscript en-US Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2231-2536 Nomophobia May Increase the Risk of Anxiety, Depression, and Social Isolation <p style="text-align: justify;">Mobile phones are powerful communication devices, first demonstrated by Motorola in 1973, and became popular during the cellular revolution that started in the 90s. In 1990, there were around 11 million mobile phone users; by 2023, there are 7.33 billion mobile phones (including both smart and feature phones) users worldwide or 91.21% of the world's population.1 The first smartphone (the cellular phone with an integrated computer and other functions that weren't necessarily intended for phones) was invented in 1992 by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and made available to the public in 1994. In 2023, there are 6.92 billion smartphone users worldwide or 86.11% of the world's population.1 The statistics indicate that the mobile phone is becoming an integral part of human life. In the last decade, the cell phone has become one of the most ubiquitous communication gadgets. The development of technology has both pros and cons. It’s also applicable to the mobile phone revolution. Truly the smartphone helped during the COVID-19 pandemic period to all age groups of people and made life very easy without travelling, especially for students, academicians, officers and IT staff. Same time, prolonged use of smartphones is caused mobile phone dependency. Mobile phone dependence/overuse of mobile phones may lead to mental problems, mood dysfunction, behavioral problems, decreased real-life social interaction, relationship disorders and reduced job/ academic performance.2. <strong>Read more...</strong></p> Subramani Parasuraman Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 13 1 1 2 10.5530/fra.2023.1.1 Scientific Update on the Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Properties of Brassica juncea <p style="text-align: justify;">Since ancient times, many communities have employed plants to treat a wide range of illnesses, including infections. In underdeveloped and developed countries like, the aforementioned traditional plants serve a essential healthcare requirements. Plants’ medicinal value is based on a number of secondary metabolites that are abundant in them and have pharmacological effects on the human body. Diverse products made from <em>Brassica juncea</em> have been used for a variety of medical purposes. Plant’s seeds and the oils that can be extracted from them have been the focus of the majority of these historically recognized uses. The green edible leaves of this plant have also been described in more recent decades, and as a result, they are now frequently thought to be effective substitutes for other allegidly “healthy” Brassica vegetables. These green edible leaves contain a variety of bioactive molecules, as well as therapeutically intriguing pharmacological properties. The goal of this review is to summarize the molecular and scientific knowledge that is now available regarding <em>Brassica juncea</em>, including its phytochemical properties, pharmacological potential, and pharmacognostic traits. Data were acquired using Google, PubMed, Scholar, and other online venues</p> Deepshikha Dubey Anuj Kumar Sharma Karan Agrawal Monika Singh Mohit Sanduja Varsha Snehi Anita Singh Manjul Pratap Singh Devender Pathak Mayank Kulshreshtha Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 13 1 3 9 10.5530/fra.2023.1.2 GC-MS/HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Garcinia cambogia <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background</strong>: Natural substances that were initially obtained from plants were once regarded as a beneficial source of possible medicinal agents and were recognized as crucial in the development of human diseases. The current study sought to determine whether hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Garcinia cambogia</em> plant fruits included any bioactive substances. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The plant fruits were collected, shade-dried, ground into a fine powder, and then extracted using Soxhlet extractors and organic solvents. After that, the extracts were examined for the presence of phytochemicals using GC-MS/HPTLC, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial techniques. According to the GC-MS studies, the hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>G. cambogia </em>contained 25 bioactive components. <strong>Results:</strong> The secondary metabolites identified in the plant, discovered by GCMS/HPTLC, are what give the plant extracts their powerful medicinal qualities. The results of the antimicrobial activity demonstrated outstanding antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as effective dose-dependent inhibitory activity against all of the tested species. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The current study provided early data on the bioactive components present in<em> G. cambogia</em> fruit extracts, which have outstanding antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action, which could provide a significant platform for pharmaceutical companies to create different Garcinia species-based medications.</p> Mathew Kizhakkekara Joseph Indhumathi Thangavel Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 13 1 10 20 10.5530/fra.2023.1.3 Synthesis of Functional Silver Nanoparticles and Microparticles with Modifiers and Evaluation of their Anti-cancer Activity on MDA-MB-453 Breast Cancer Cell Line <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>One of the most noteworthy concerns in cancer theranostics in recent decades is the outcome of unique nanoparticles for diagnosing and treating purposes. In the current study, we used unripe <em>Garcinia cambogia</em> fruits to create silver nanoparticles utilizing a straightforward and environmentally friendly process. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> When exposed to fruit extract, the hydroalcoholic silver ions were decreased and stabilized over an extended period, leading to the biogenesis of silver nanoparticles with functionalized surfaces. These organically produced silver nanoparticles' properties were examined and characterized. <strong>Results:</strong> By measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, formation of the reactive oxygen species, the viability of the cell, and activities of caspase 3 and 9 against the MDA-MB-231 (Breast Cancer Cells), we were able to demonstrate the anti-cancer effects of these nanoparticles<em> in vitro.</em> The findings imply that the AgNPs have cytotoxic and apoptotic characteristics. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the current research, AgNPs may aid in the creation of an effective anti-cancer drug, which could result in the creation of remarkable nanomedicine for treating different types of cancer.</p> Mathew Kizhakkekara Joseph Indhumathi Thangavel Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 13 1 21 28 10.5530/fra.2023.1.4 The rat ovaries after U-74389G process <p>Aim: This study co-evaluated the 4 quoted histologic variables after U-74389G (L) administration. The calculation was based on the results of 2 preliminary studies, each one evaluating two respective histologic variables of ovarian epithelium edema (OE), oophoritis (OO), ovarian epithelium karyorrhexis (OK), ovarian congestion (OC); in an induced ischemia reperfusion animal experiment. Furthermore, the cytokine (TNFα) and the marker for&nbsp;<a href="">oxidative stress</a> malondialdehyde&nbsp;(MDA) were also calculated.</p> <p>Materials and methods: The 2 main experimental endpoints at which the OE, OO and OK, OC and TNFα, MDA scores were evaluated was the 60<sup>th</sup> reperfusion min (for the groups A and C) and the 120<sup>th</sup> reperfusion min (for the groups B and D). Specially, the groups A and B were processed without drugs, whereas the groups C and D after L administration.</p> <p>Results: The first preliminary study showed that L has a very significant recessing potency for OE and OC together (p-values=0.0157) within the “without lesions” alterations 0.1772727 [-0.3191054 - -0.03544]. The second preliminary study showed that L had a non-significant recessing potency for OK and OC within the “without lesions” grade 0.1772727 [-0.3716027 - +0.0170573] together (p-values=0.0726). &nbsp;These 2 studies were co-evaluated since they came from the same experimental setting. This study co-evaluated the combined diagnostic values of the four variables together. Separate calculations were performed for TNFα and MDA scores.</p> <p>Conclusions: L administration significantly suppressed the 4 histologic variables within the “without lesions alterations” score 0.1772727 [-0.3208232 - -0.0337223] (p-value=0.0169 ), non significantly reduced the TNFα levels by 4.69% [<u>+</u>8.40%] (p-value=0.5749) and significantly reduced the MDA levels by 9.85%<u>+</u>2.66% (p-value=0.0005).</p> C Τsompos C Panoulis A Triantafyllou C G Zografos E Gerakis S Gerakis A Papalois Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 13 1 29 33 10.5530/fra.2023.1.5 Influences of Ethanolic Extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum Leaves and Bark on Lipid Profile, Liver and Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes on Toxin-induced Wistar Rats <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>The study was to identify the effects of ethanolic extract of <em>Peltophorum pterocarpum </em>leaves and bark on lipid profile, liver and carbohydrate enzymes on isoniazid and rifampicin induced Wistar rats. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Ethanolic leaf and bark extract of <em>P. pterocarpum</em> freshly suspended in sterile water (300mg/kg BW), were administered to rats post-orally as a single dosage orally by intubation early morning for each day of the experimental period. Rats were separated into 10 groups with 6 rats in each group and maintained in isolated cages with proper ventilation. The samples were introduced to find the following parameters Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, Phospholipids (PL), Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), glucose, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase and hexokinase, kidney markers such as urea, uric acid and creatinine. <strong>Results:</strong> The results highlighted that the leaves and bark extract of <em>P. pterocarpum</em> had a potential hepatoprotective effect against the toxin treated rats and may alter lipid profile, liver and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes levels. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This effect proves the hepatoprotective nature of both the leaves and barks of <em>P. pterocarpum.</em></p> Maria Jerline Ramasamy Manikandan Muthukrishnan Saradhadevi Balasubramanian Balamuralikrishnan Mohd Younis Arumugam Vijaya Anand Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 13 1 34 40 10.5530/fra.2023.1.6 Cardioprotective Potential of Qusqualis indica Leaves; An in silico Docking Study <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background</strong>: Nowadays cardiac problems are the main cause of death. It includes coronary artery disease, angina pectoris (stable and unstable), congestive heart failure, etc. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim of this paper was to generate scientific data regarding <em>In silico</em> analysis of beta-sitosterol, coumaric acid, lupeol, qurecetin, and urosolic acid of Muscarinic (M<sub>2</sub>) receptor. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The leaf powder was treated with different reagents and prepared with different extracts. The phytochemical screening was carried out by treated the extracts with different reagents for the presence of various metabolites. RCSB protein data bank had used for docking studies. <strong>Results:</strong> The phytochemical screening clearly revealed the presence of various metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, etc. <em>In-silico</em> analysis of beta-sitosterol, coumaric acid, lupeol, qurecetin, and urosolic acid had very good interactions with cholinergic receptor (M<sub>2</sub>). The obtained score is -7.96, -5.63, -6.7, -7.73, -5.82 for beta-sitosterol, coumaric acid, lupeol, quercetin, and urosolic acid, respectively, which lies in the standard scale. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>All these metabolites (compounds) are present in Quisqualis indica leaf extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) and found to be good cardio protective agents.</p> Mayank Kulshreshtha Anuj Kumar Sharma Devender Pathak Pavan Pandey Varsha Snehi Karuna Shanker Shukla Akash Ved Arpita Singh Neeraj Verma Anita Singh Manjul Pratap Singh Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 13 1 41 45 10.5530/fra.2023.1.7 Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Activity of Hesperidin on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Swiss Albino Mice <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>The study is planned to investigate the antidiabetic activity of hesperidin on Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus in Swiss Albino mice. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups viz., normal control, diabetic control, insulin 0.75 IU/kg, hesperidin 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively (<em>n</em> = 6/group). All groups received treatments once daily for 21 consecutive days, except normal and diabetic control groups. The random blood glucose and body weight were determined on the pre-study day, 7, 14 and 21<sup>st </sup>day of the experiment. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected through the retro-orbital plexus puncture and used for the biochemical analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> Throughout the study, the diabetic control mice showed a significant increase in glucose level when compared with that of the control group, whereas the animals treated with insulin or hesperidin showed a significant reduction in the levels of glucose when compared with that of the diabetic control group. In biochemical analysis, the mice administered with the STZ showed a significant increase in the levels of AST, ALP and creatinine when compared with that of the control group. The mice administered with insulin or hesperidin showed a significant decrease in the AST and ALP when compared with that of the diabetic control group. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hesperidin showed significant antidiabetic activity on STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in mice.</p> Subramani Parasuraman Jaya Nivashana Rao Thinagaran Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 13 1 46 49 10.5530/fra.2023.1.8