Free Radicals and Antioxidants <p>Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.</p> EManuscript en-US Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2231-2536 Phytopharmacological Updates on Mentha longifolia: A Comprehensive Review <p>Wild mint, or Mentha longifolia, is a well-known folk treatment. This plant's parts have been employed in Iranian and other traditional medicines. Numerous researches have demonstrated the plant's numerous pharmacological and medicinal properties. In order to review the traditional applications of M. longifolia as well as the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of its complete extract and key components, we prepared this study. An herb called Mentha longifolia has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including effects on the neurological system, gastrointestinal tract, and bacteria. Using Google, PubMed, Scholar, and other web resources, data were gathered.</p> Kehar Singh Mohit Sanduja Rishabh Gaur Sunil Thakral Dr. Mayank Kulshreshtha Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 91 95 10.5530/fra.2023.2.15 Antioxidant Properties of Honey: Mechanisms and Clinical Applications <p style="text-align: justify;">Honey is a natural antioxidant source that has gained popularity in recent years due to its possible health benefits. Its antioxidant properties derive from its unique composition of phytochemicals and other compounds, which work in line to neutralise free radicals and upregulate antioxidant enzymes. This review summarises the composition and antioxidant mechanisms of honey, as well as the in vitro, animal, and human evidence for its antioxidant activity. In addition, potential clinical applications of honey's antioxidant properties are discussed, such as its use in preventing chronic diseases, promoting wound healing and skin health, and possibly as an adjunct to cancer therapy. Finally, honey's impact on antioxidant activity as well as its safety and quality are discussed.</p> Mohammed Yunus Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 50 53 10.5530/fra.2023.2.9 Quantitative analysis of Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Efficiency of Cucumis prophetarum L. <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> The current study evaluated the efficiency of different solvent extractions on the yield of total phenolics and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity for different plant parts (root, stem, leaves, immature and mature fruits) of Cucumis prophetarum. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by using the following methods: Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP assay), ferrous ion chelating activity, phosphomolybdenum reducing power assay and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. <strong>Results:</strong> The chemical examination of comparative extractive solvents of different plant parts (root, stem, leaves, immature and mature fruits) showed variations in the amount of active ingredients under investigation. Among the different plant parts analyzed for phenolics and flavonoid content, the aqueous extract of leaf material yielded highest content of phenolics (22.6 mg TAE/g dry weight) and flavonoids (3.15 mg RE/g dry weight) as compared to other plant parts. The aqueous extracts rich in phenolics and flavonoid content also exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all the assays and showed expected significant positive correlation with the phytochemical compounds. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study indicated that in phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant assays, the results were higher for aqueous extraction system than other extragents used. Hence, the aqueous extract represents a source of potential antioxidants that could be used in pharmaceuticals.</p> Firdose Kolar Saleha Mujawar Babu R. Lamani Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 54 59 10.5530/fra.2023.2.10 Orientin Protects BV-2 Microglial Cells against Hypoxia Reoxygenation Injury through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Oxidative stress is one of the pivotal pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Orientin, a compound extracted from plants, has been previously reported to have antioxidant activity that was exploited in various diseases. The objective of this study was to focus on the potential therapeutic effects of orientin on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced Hypoxia Reoxygenation (HR) injury in BV-2 microglial cells and to explore the possible mechanisms.<strong> Materials and Methods:</strong> The optimum protective condition of orientin on BV-2 microglial cells after HR injury was evaluated by the viability of cells measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Afterwards, functions of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) as well as the content of Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured by corresponding kits. Activation of Nrf2 pathway was assayed by western blotting. <strong>Results:</strong> Our study demonstrates that the viability of HR injured BV-2 microglial cells was improved significantly after incubation with orientin (40~100 μg/mL) for 8 hr. Furthermore, orientin was found to increase the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein in BV-2 microglial cells and was shown to promote antioxidant enzyme activities and enhance the expression of HO-1 and NQO1. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Taken together, Results of our study indicate that orientin protect BV-2 microglial cells against HR injury induced by CoCl2 , and this protection is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress through the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.</p> Siqun Jing Yixian Tu Hongyue Zhai Junyan Zhang Genmei Liu Jinsheng Cheng Suhua Qi Yunguo Liu Liang-Jun Yan Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 60 66 10.5530/fra.2023.2.11 Phenolic Content, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Efficacy of Opuntia elatior Mill. <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>The current study aims at examining the unripened and ripened fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. for its phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential. <strong>Materials and Methods: T</strong>he extracts of unripened and ripened fruits of O. elatior were prepared using various solvent systems (aqueous, ethanol, methanol, and acetone) and the extracts were evaluated for phenolics and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by using Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous ion chelating activity, phosphomolybdenum reducing power assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. <strong>Results: </strong>The results of the study revealed that among the unripened and ripened fruits of O. elatior analyzed, unripened fruits yielded highest content of phenolics and flavonoids as compared to ripened fruits at fresh weight as well as dry weight basis. The extracts were also found to have significantly different levels of antioxidant activities in different antioxidant methods. The antioxidant activity varied in ripened and unripened fruits as well as among the solvents in different assays. The overall results indicated that the dried fruits of O. elatior having highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids also exhibited highest antioxidant activity as compared to fresh fruits. Significantly, a positive correlation was observed between the phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study specified that dried fruits of O. elatior showed highest phenolics and flavonoid content as well as highest antioxidant activity. Thus, dried fruits of O. elatior can be used as an accessible source of natural antioxidants with consequent health benefits.</p> Firdose Kolar Sidanand V. Kambhar Vaishali S. Kamble Babu R. Lamani Copyright (c) 2023 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 67 73 10.5530/fra.2023.2.12 Anti-Parkinson Potential of Indian Ocimum species in Relation to Active Components as Revealed Using Metabolites Profiling, in vitro and in silico Enzyme Inhibition Studies <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease suffered by elderly population worldwide. There are different treatment options for its symptomatic relief including the use of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-B, acetylcholinesterase enzymes and L-DOPA though with certain side effects. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> To identify new resources of natural products with potential effects to treat PD, several Indian Ocimum species, e.g., O. tenuiflorum (green), O. tenuiflorum (purple), O. basilicum, O. americanum, O. kilimandscharicum, and O. gratissimum were screened. Activities of the extracts were studied against monoamine Oxidase-B (MAO-B), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Identification of active components present in these extracts was determined using GC-MS and LC-MS metabolites profiling. Further, activity of identified phenolics was measured by docking score against MAO-B and AChE. <strong>Results: </strong>All extracts and several phenolics showed potential inhibition of these two PD related enzymes based on in vitro and in silico, respectively. Ellagic acid-di-methyl ether-O-glucoside, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin-5-glucuronide were identified as top scoring hits against both AChE and MAO-B from molecular docking studies. L-DOPA was also detected in all the species of Ocimum. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> IC50 values against both enzymes and L-DOPA levels detected in O. tenuiflorum (green), O. basilicum, and O. americanum pose them as potential nutraceuticals for PD treatment.</p> Bratati De Sreerupa Sarkar Jhelam Chatterjee Aditi Gangopadhyay Mohammed Sheashea Mohamed A. Farag Achintya Saha Susmita Das Copyright (c) 2024 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 74 85 10.5530/fra.2023.2.13 The Rat Ovaries after Erythropoietin Process <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background:</strong> This article presents an experimental model for assessment of Erythropoietin (Epo) effects produced upon post-ischemic damage of ovarian tissue. The results of study were expressed as a combined index calculated from individual pathologic scores of experimental ovarian damages. The panel included 4 distinct histologic variables, those of Ovarian Epithelium edema (OE), Ovarian Congestion (OC), Ovarian epithelium Karyorrhexis (OK) and Oophoritis (OO). Final conclusions were based on the data from 2 independent experimental series with acute ischemia-reperfusion of ovaries produced in female rats, assessing the effects of locally injected Erythropoietin (Epo). Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokine (TNFα) and Malonic Dialdehyde (MDA) were also assayed as biomarkers of oxidative stress.<strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was performed in young Wistar rats. Ovarian ischemia was induced by clapping inferior aorta for 45 min after the laparotomy. Two experimental time points were chosen for assessing the OE, OC and OK, OO and TNFα, MDA scores, i.e., 60 and 120 min after starting the ovarian reperfusion. The groups A and B were served as controls, whereas the groups C and D were administered Epo intravenously. <strong>Results:</strong> The first experimental series showed that Epo has a non-significant enhancing effect for the OE and OC indexes (p-values=0.94) in a subgroup with the histologically “unchanged” state, at a grade of 0.009 [-0.258-+0.276]. The second study showed that Epo treatment was associated with a moderate, however, non-significant increase of OK and OO within the animals with “unchanged” state, grade 0.027 [-0.055-0.110] (p-values=0.50). These two studies were co-evaluated since they were obtained in the same experimental setting. Separate calculations were performed for TNFα and MDA scores showing some marginal unspecified effects of Epo. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Epo administration was associated with a trend for enhancement of the 4 histologic variables within the “unchanged” grade group at the score of 0.018 [-0.128-+0.165] (p-value=0.80), along with some reduction of the TNFα levels by 22.89% [+15.05%] (p-value=0.12), and non-significant increase of MDA levels by 27.05% [+29.63%] (p-value=0.35). This minimal antioxidant effects should be interpreted with caution. Very likely, the antioxidant effects will be more pronounced at later observation terms.</p> Constantinos Tsompos Constantinos Panoulis Aggeliki Triantafyllou George C. Zografos Evripidis Gerakis Stergios Gerakis Apostolos Papalois Copyright (c) 2024 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 13 2 86 90 10.5530/fra.2023.2.14